In terms of biodiversity, Indonesia is one of the most important countries in the world. Conservation International acknowledge Indonesia as one of the 17 “megadiverse” countries, it has two of the world’s 25 “hotspots”, 18 World Wildlife Fund’s “Global 200” ecoregions and 24 Bird Life International’s “Endemic Bird Areas”. It has a rich biodiversity having 10 percent of the world’s flowering plants and is one of the world’s centers for agrobiodiversity of plant cultivars and domesticated livestock. In terms of faunal diversity, Indonesia ranks as fifth and sixth worldwide in birds and amphibians, respectively. Indonesia is also next to Brazil in terms of mammal diversity; and fourth globally in reptile diversity.
The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between ACB and Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF) was signed last May 2015 and was extended until 31 December 2020. Out of the four AHPs of Indonesia, two were selected as site for the SGP implementation in the country. These include Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP) (1.01 million hectares) which is one of Asia’s largest protected areas and Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) (0.125 million hectares).
The first call on Collaborative Management Plans (CMP) of GLNP and WKNP has recently concluded. The CMPs were developed by Yayasan Orangutan Sumatera Lestari – Orangutan Information Centre (YOSL – OIC) in consortium with Pust Informasi Lingkungan Indonesia – Indonesian Environment Information Centre (PILI).
A. Gunung Leuser National Park (GLNP)
GLNP covers almost inaccessible mountains in Indonesia. The Alas River also runs through the National Park. It is believed that the river is the last place where the orangutans, tigers, elephants, rhinoceros, and leopards lived together. It measures around 1,092,692 hectares which covers North Sumatra, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Southeast Aceh, South Aceh, Aceh Singkil), Regency of Langkat.
Amidst the pressures in the management of GLNP, some of the problems and issues of the parks relate to environmental fees for the local community management and ecotourism activities. The Park Management hopes the SGP Indonesia to support the sustainable utilization of natural resources through better collaboration of the National Park with the local government and local communities. Further, there will be habitat restoration and improved information about the flagship species (elephant, orangutan, tiger, and rhino) as important for success as the local communities’ involvement in the management of the National Park. Lastly, nature tourism will be developed that could provide income opportunities, which would reduce the pressure on the park’s resources.
B. Way Kambas National Park (WKNP)
WKNP is the oldest reserve in Indonesia and is the home for the Sumatran Elephant. It covers an area of 13,000 hectares in Lampung Province, Southern Sumatra, Indonesia.
Some of the challenges in the WKNP are human-elephant conflicts, forest fire which was reportedly caused by natural cause during dry season and accidental fires caused by illegal hunters, illegal logging, illegal hunting, and river pollution caused by intensive agricultural activities at Raja Basa Lama I. The Park Management hopes for a 10 percent increase of the flagship species (tapir, elephant, tiger, sun bear, and rhino) over five years. Moreover, the Park Management also wish for the improvement of ecotourism, habitat conservation, involvement of the local community wherein their income will be stabilized and increased.